(Dr. Jeffrey Swanson of Duke Univeristy; Dr. Julianne C. Hellmuth and Dr. James K. McNulty University of Tennessee–Knoxville)
In all of his work, Dr. Swanson of Duke University, has found one recurring factor: past violence remains the single biggest predictor of future violence. Hence the Kether gun psychiatric assessment system devotes an entire chart of composites in its report ( see above chart. “Any history of violent behavior is a much stronger predictor of future violence than mental-health diagnosis,” the professor declares. Swanson posits that gun prohibitions would ( aside from psychopathy ) be first based on the psychological trait Anger and then only in minor emphasis on the rest of the other mental health factors, but on records of violent behavior—not just felonies, but also including minor disputes. “There are lots of people out there carrying guns around who have high levels of trait anger—the type who smash and break things,” he said. “I believe they shouldn’t have guns. That’s what’s behind the idea of restricting firearms with people with misdemeanor violent-crime convictions or temporary domestic-violence restraining orders, or even multiple D.U.I.s.”
One might then ask, with regards to partner relationships , “Aside from the Deadly Anger Trait, do high levels of other neuroticism factors such as inability to handle stress relate to the issue of intimate partner violence ?” Research study shows that Neuroticism indeed may predispose partners to increased risks of Violence perpetration. Consistent with this prediction, the current longitudinal study of 169 community couples revealed that the effects of neuroticism on Violence perpetration over the first 4 years of marriage were moderated by observations of problem-solving behavior and objective ratings of chronic stress. For instance of partners are those that are husbands and wives who scored higher on a measure of neuroticism at the outset of marriage engaged in more relationship Violence throughout the marriage on average. Curiously and additionally, hose who possessed more effective problem-solving skills or experienced lower levels of stress were significantly less likely to engage in violence.
The foregoing may imply that psychological testing for gun license applications be done to measure Neuroticism and for for those found to be with high emotional instability be conditionally required to undergo stress management and aggression modulation seminars.
III. Suicidality Psychiatrists also have a very hard time predicting which of their patients will go on to commit a violent act. A 2012 meta-analysis of data from close to twenty-five thousand participants, from thirteen countries, led by the Oxford University psychiatrist Seena Fazel, used nine assessment tools most commonly used to predict violence—from actuarial ones like the Psychopathy Checklist to clinical judgment tools like the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth .
To their surprise, there is one pattern that runs through all of the data: violence against oneself. Mental illness, Dr.Swanson, of Duke University, has found, increases the risk of gun violence when that violence takes the form of suicide. According to the United States Center for Disease Control (C.D.C.), between twenty-one and forty-four per cent of those who commit suicide had previously exhibited mental-health problems—as indicated by a combination of family interviews and evidence of mental-health treatment found at the scene, such as psychiatric medications—while between sixteen and thirty-three per cent had a history of psychiatric treatment. As Swanson points out, many studies have shown an even higher risk of suicide among the mentally ill, up to ten to twenty times higher than the general population for bipolar disorder and depression, and thirteen times higher for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Hence, psychiatric testing is indeed necessary prior to gun licensing since the chances of violence to the self is greatly possible.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GUN ACCESSIBILITY
I. Anti-Social Mental Disorders lead to Violence
Psychopathy and sociopathy are anti-social personality disorders. Both disordesr results in extremely violent acts. And for this reason alone there must be psychological testing to screen for individual’s wanting to purchase firearms. Only Kether’s projectives can report such factor and rapidly and proven-validated so many times by bodies of studies over a hundred years that projectives are clearly correlated to the psychopathy construct.
While both these disorders are the result of an interaction between genetic predispositions and environmental factors, psychopathy is used when the underlying cause leans towards the hereditary. Sociopath is the term used when the antisocial behavior is a result of a brain injury or belief system and upbringing. In recent years, the term psychopath has acquired a specific meaning and the condition is now more widely understood.
Psychopaths are born with temperamental differences such as impulsiveness, cortical under-arousal, and fearlessness that lead them to risk-seeking behavior and an inability to internalize social norms. On the other hand, sociopaths have relatively normal temperaments; their personality disorder being more an effect of negative sociological factors like parental neglect, delinquent peers, poverty, and extremely low or extremely high intelligence.